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热裂是模具最常见的失效形式。热裂纹通常形成于模具型腔表面或内部热应力集中处,当裂纹形成后,应力重新分布,裂纹发展到一定长度时,由于塑性应变而产生应力松弛使裂纹停止扩展,随着循环次数的增加,裂纹尖端附近出现一些小空洞并逐渐形成微裂纹,与开始形成的主裂纹合并,裂纹继续扩展,最后裂纹间相互连接?成网络状裂纹而导致模具失效。热裂主要是材料热应力疲劳所引起,即材料在热应力的作用下,由于经受反复或脉动应变而产生的一种连续的?局部的、永久性的组织变化。与热裂相对应的最 重要的材料性能是材料的抗热疲劳性。迄今为止,衡量材料抗热疲劳性能的标准尚未统一。因此,如何用常规力学性能来反映抗热疲劳性能就显得较为重要。有资料表明,与抗热疲劳性能有关的最重要的力学性能是材料的强度,另一种观点则更倾向于材料的韧性。从热疲劳试验结果分析[1],铝压铸模具的热疲劳裂纹中存在疲劳辉纹,并以弹性应变为主,而且多数模具的使用寿命在 104~105 次以上,具有高周疲劳的特性。根据疲劳强度理论,强度高的材料更能适应长周期的弹性应变,在这种情况下,抗热疲劳性能与强度的联系更为紧密。但是,如果型腔表面的工作温度偏? 如压铸铜及铁基合金等) 或因其他因素使模具产生过大的热应力,从而使应变幅度大大超过材料的弹性应变范围,应变则以塑性应变为? 具有低周疲劳特性。此时韧性高的材料具有更大的优势。因此考核材料的热疲劳性能时,应注意区分材料的疲劳形式,并据此确定模具合适的强韧性配合?br /> <p> <br /> </p> <p style="text-align:center;"> <img src="/uploads/image/20190307/20190307110324_4218.jpg" alt="" /> </p> 1.3 热裂产生的原?br /> <br /> (1)模具材料的影响,模具钢的晶界无共 晶碳化物夹杂,大块状的共晶碳化物和杂质强?极小,不能抵抗热疲劳,降低了钢材的塑性,?热裂发生的起源点,同时模具组织存在的成分偏析导致在相同奥氏体化温度下, 淬火后得到的?氏体组织粗细不均匀,这也是产热裂的原因之一;<br /> <br /> (2)模具的设计的影响,过小的圆角半径、壁厚差悬殊的扁宽薄壁截面,以及孔、槽位置不合适等,很容易在模具热处理和使用过程中引起过大的应力集中而萌生裂纹,同时冷却系统设计不合理,会使模具的冷却不均匀产生热应力,导致热裂的产?<br /> <br /> (3)模具的制造的影响,制造模具的一?用机械加工和电火花加工,机械加工的表面粗 糙度对模具热疲劳性能有很大影响,模具型腔表面应获得较低的表面粗糙度值,不能留有刀痕?划伤和毛刺,这些缺陷会引起应力集中,诱发热疲劳裂纹萌;电火花加工后的型腔表面会产生出一个变质层,这一层的化学成分、金相组织、力学性能(强度、硬度、韧?等都发生了改变,变质层又硬又脆,并有应力和大量的微裂纹,会引起模具早期龟?<br /> <br /> (4)模具的热处理的影响,合理的热处理工艺可以使模具获得所需要的力学性能,提高模具的使用寿命,但是如果因热处理工艺设计不当或操作不当而产生热处理缺陷,将严重危害模具的承载能力,引起早期失效,缩短工作寿?热处理后的模具要求一定的硬度,硬度偏低,易出现粘模和早期龟裂,如果硬度太高又可能开?过大的应力集中而萌生裂纹,同时冷却系统设计不合理,会使模具的冷却不均匀产生热应力,导致热裂的产?<br /> <br /> (3)模具的制造的影响,制造模具的一般选用机械加工和电火花加工,机械加工的表面?糙度对模具热疲劳性能有很大影响,模具型腔?面应获得较低的表面粗糙度值,不能留有刀痕、划伤和毛刺,这些缺陷会引起应力集中,诱发热疲劳裂纹?电火花加工后的型腔表面会产生出一个变质层,这一层的化学成分、金相组织、力学性能(强度、硬度、韧?等都发生了改变,变质层又硬又脆,并有应力和大量的微裂纹,会引起模具早期龟?<br /> <br /> (4)模具的热处理的影响,合理的热处理工艺可以使模具获得所需要的力学性能,提高模具的使用寿命,但是如果因热处理工艺设计不当或操作不当而产生热处理缺陷,将严重危害模具 的承载能力,引起早期失效,缩短工作寿?热处理后的模具要求一定的硬度,硬度偏低,易出现粘模和早期龟裂,如果硬度太高又可能开?<br /> <br /> (5)压铸工艺的影响,高温的铝水传递给模具的热量比较多,致使模具温度比较高,当铸件取走后模具温度就急剧下降,这样就很容易产生热疲劳现象,出现热裂现?充填速度过高?造成粘模、冲蚀、龟?当低速压射速度较高?金属液包裹较多的气体时,气体在高速压射进入型腔中的低压区会膨胀,气体膨胀产生爆破,气体带动铝液以很高的速度冲击、侵蚀型腔表面,造成型腔表面气蚀缺损,被气蚀的表面还会有裂纹产生;铝液压力的大小和受力方向对模具龟裂的影响也是很大?脱模剂对模具激冷也会对模具产生热疲劳现象?br /></p> </div> <div id="esc9ka7f9a" class="pagess"> <ul><div>上一?<a href="490.html">重庆汽车模具行业要抓住机遇把握未来要</a></div> <div>下一?<a href="488.html">浅谈汽车铸造模具的维护保养方法</a></div> </ul> </div> <div id="esc9ka7f9a" class="info_key">相关标签?/div> </div> <div id="esc9ka7f9a" class="clear"></div> <div id="esc9ka7f9a" class="cateslist"> <dl> <dt>相关产品</dt> <dd> <div id="esc9ka7f9a" class="img"> </div> <div id="esc9ka7f9a" class="txt"> <a href="/supply/462.html" title="重庆模具设计公司" rel="nofollow">重庆模具设计公司</a> </div> </dd> <dd> <div id="esc9ka7f9a" class="img"> </div> <div id="esc9ka7f9a" class="txt"> <a href="/supply/461.html" title="重庆模具设计厂家" rel="nofollow">重庆模具设计厂家</a> </div> </dd> <dd> <div id="esc9ka7f9a" class="img"> </div> <div id="esc9ka7f9a" class="txt"> <a 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